Belief in Divine Predestination
The sixth and final article of Islamic faith is belief in divine predestination: this means that everything, good or bad, all happy or sad moments, joy or pain come from God and are predetermined by Him.
First, God’s prediction is infallible. God doesn’t care about this world or its inhabitants. He is wise and loving, but that shouldn’t make us fatalists who don’t lift a finger and say: „Why should we make an effort?“ God’s predestination does not replace human responsibility. God holds us responsible for what we do and what we can do. He does not hold us responsible for things that we cannot influence. He is just, and because He has given us limited abilities, He will judge us accordingly. We can plan and make the right decisions, but if things sometimes don’t go the way we want, we don’t need to lose hope or get depressed. We should worship God and keep trying.
God knows what the creatures will do and His knowledge includes everything. Because of his eternal foreknowledge, he knows everything that exists in its entirety and completeness.
„Nothing is hidden from God, neither on earth nor in heaven.“ (Quran 3: 5)
Those who reject this deny God’s perfection because the opposite of knowledge is either ignorance or forgetfulness. That would mean that God was flawed in his foreknowledge of future events; He would no longer be omniscient. Both are defects from which God is free.
Second, God has put everything on the Protected Panel until the day of judgment (al-Lauh al-Mahfuz in Arabic). The lifespan of each person is written down and the amount of their maintenance has been allocated to them. Everything that was created or appears in the universe corresponds to what was written there. God says:
“Don’t you know that Allah knows what is in heaven and on earth? Sure, that’s in a book; surely it is easy for Allah. ” (Quran 22:70)
Third, what God wants does not happen and what God does not want does not happen. Nothing happens in the heavens or on earth without the will of God.
Fourth, God is the creator of all things.
„He who owns the rule of heaven and earth … created everything and gave him his right measure.“ (Quran 25: 2)
According to Islamic teaching, every human action is prescribed in both material and spiritual life. As a result, it is wrong to believe that fate is blind, arbitrary, and relentless. Without denying divine interference in human affairs, human freedom remains unaffected. Divine predestination does not diminish the principle of moral freedom and human responsibility. All of this is known, but freedom is also preserved.
Man is not a helpless creature who is carried away by his fate. Every person is responsible for their actions. Lethargic peoples and individuals who are sluggish in ordinary matters of life have to blame themselves, not God. Man is obliged to obey the laws of Allah; and he will receive the punishment or reward earned depending on whether he breaks the law or follows it. If this is assumed, man must have the strength and the ability to break or obey the law. God would not hold us accountable for something for which we are not responsible:
„God does not impose any soul more than it can do.“ (Quran 2: 286)
Belief in divine foresight strengthens belief in God. Man realizes that God alone checks everything. That is why he trusts him and relies on him. Even if someone does their best, they also trust in God when it comes to the end result. His hard work or mental exertion does not make him haughty because God is the source of all things. Finally, a person attains peace of mind knowing that God is the All-Wise and that His deeds are determined by wisdom. Everything happens for a reason. If something happens to you, you have to realize that you could never have avoided it. And if something is not given to someone, you have to be aware that it was not prescribed for him.