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(part 1 of 2): The History of Female Genital Cutting (FGC) and Its Types

A common phenomenon that is unfortunately almost exclusively associated with Islam is the different forms of female circumcision or FGC [1]. Although many of those involved in this cause associate it with Islam, most forms of FGC that are currently occurring in the world and that are truly despicable acts are acts of which the religion of Islam is innocent is. Islam in no way supports these acts, and they should be seen as something purely cultural and not Islamic. Amnesty International assures: „FGC [female genital cutting] damages Islam and is not practiced by the majority of Muslims, but has taken on a religious dimension.“ [2] The Female Genital Cutting Education and Networking Project stated: „… it is not an Islamic practice. FGC is a cross-cultural and religion-independent ritual. In Africa and the Middle East it is practiced by Muslims, Coptic Christians, members of various indigenous groups, Protestants and Catholics, to name just a few. ”[3] A sect of the Jews, the Falashas, ​​also circumcises both genders. [4 ] We’ll first look at the different types of FGC and then examine why different cultures have imposed these techniques on their female followers. to name just a few. ”[3] A sect of the Jews, the Falashas, ​​also circumcises both sexes. [4] We’ll first look at the different types of FGC and then examine why different cultures have imposed these techniques on their female followers. to name just a few. ”[3] A sect of the Jews, the Falashas, ​​also circumcises both sexes. [4] We’ll first look at the different types of FGC and then examine why different cultures have imposed these techniques on their female followers.

Types of

Female Genital Cutting Female genital cutting is “a term used to refer to any type of removal or change in the female genitalia.” [5] There are these types of FGC [6]:

Type I: This is the easiest form by FGC, which exposes the removal or part of the foreskin covering the clitoris in women, thus exposing the clitorid glans. This may involve partial or total clitoral removal. It is known as a clitoridotomy. According to the United Nations Population Fund, this type of male circumcision is comparable. [7] It is sometimes called „Sunna circumcision“ because of the fact that it is the type that is usually performed by Muslims who believe that it is allowed.

Type II: This type is known as clitoridectomy, the clitoris and the labia minora are partially or completely removed.

Type III: One of the most extreme types of FGC is the complete removal of the clitoris, both the labia minora and majora, and connecting the two sides of the vulva over the vagina by suturing with thread or other means so that they eventually heal together. Only a small, pencil-sized hole is left to drain menstrual blood and urine. This is known as infibulation or pharaonic circumcision, referring to its origin.

Type IV: This type includes all other types of genital changes, such as piercing, piercing or cutting the clitoris and / or labia; Stretching the clitoris and / or labia; Burning the clitoris and surrounding area; Cutting, scratching (angurya cuts) or cutting (gishri cuts) the vagina or the surrounding tissue; and the introduction of caustic substances or plants into the vagina.

Geographical spread

Different types of FGC are practiced around the world, but it is most common in Sub-Saharan Africa; in a volume that extends from Senegal to Somalia, as the map shows. Circumcision also exists in the Middle East, North and South America, Indonesia and Malaysia. Type III occurs exclusively in Somalia, Sudan and southern Egypt, and also in some regions of Mali and Nigeria.

In some societies, such as Somalia, Eritrea and Ethiopia, we find type III FGC in almost all women. The reasons range from considering that the woman is unclean if the clitoris is not completely removed, to ensuring that the women remain chaste until their marriage. This practice is a very old custom in these societies and members are afraid to refrain from doing it because they fear chastisement. Women could not find anyone to marry them or even be accused of fornication. Families could lose their honor if this tradition is not followed.

FGC was also common in North America and especially in the United States; until 1950, types I, II and III were used to control women’s sexuality. Clitoridectomy has been used for a variety of reasons. One of the main reasons was to reduce masturbation. In England, Isaac Baker Brown published a book on his success in preventing masturbation in women with clitoridectomy. He also claimed that it healed strange nervous disorders such as hysteria and epilepsy. [8] Much more masturbation solutions were offered, such as chastity belts, which were first used in the Middle Ages to ensure that wives remained chaste when their husbands were away. To prevent masturbation in boys, rings with spikes and even more drastic methods were used,

In one of the most classic books in pediatrics, Diseases of Infancy and Childhood, which was printed eleven times between 1897 and 1940, the author LEHolt advocated cauterization of the clitoris as well as cauterization of the vulva as a preventive measure against masturbation. Masturbation was seen as the cause of many diseases, such as neuroses, disobedience and disrespect towards parents. [10]
In the United States, an organization known as the Orificial Surgery Society was created that publishes journals that mention the various benefits of clitoridectomy, even for simple things like headaches.

There are also many hygienic benefits attributed to clitoridotomy. CF McDonald stated in a 1958 paper entitled Circumcision of the Female [11]: “If men need circumcision for cleanliness and hygiene, why not women? I may have operated on 40 patients who needed this treatment. ” The author said it heals „irritation, itching, excitability, masturbation, frequency and urgency“, and smegmaliths that cause „dyspareunia and frigidity“.
Until recently, the clitoris was considered to be impure. Even Sigmund Freud, one of the founders of modern psychology, said in one of his books, Sexuality and the Psychology of Love, that „eliminating clitoral sexuality is a necessary prerequisite for the development of femininity.“

Nowadays, many adults choose to volunteer for clitoridotomy because some doctors [12] and others [13] advocate clitoridotomy by claiming that it increases sexual enjoyment. They say that an oversized clitoris hood could hinder clitoral stimulation. Some websites, such as Circlist, BMEzine, and geocities, even show testimonials from people who have undergone this process, as well as medical reports that praise these practices. They show that the majority of women reported increased sexual enjoyment after the procedure (87.5% in Rathman’s studies, 1959 [14] and 75% in Knowles‘).

 

Footnotes:
[1] Some opponents of this practice use the term female genital mutilation, or FGM, but the term FGC is commonly used nowadays to avoid irritating social sensitivity.
[2] What is Female Genital Mutilation? Amnesty International .. (http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGACT770061997?open&of=ENG-370)
[3] Female Genital Cutting (FGC): An Introduction, Marianne Sarkis. (http://www.fgmnetwork.org/intro/fgmintro.html).
[4] Andree, “Zur Volkskunde der Juden,” p. 84.
[5] Female Genital Cutting (FGC): An Introduction, by Marianne Sarkis (http://www.fgmnetwork.org/intro/index.html).
[6] Female Genital Mutilation: Report of a WHO Technical Working Group, Geneva, July 17-19, 1995. ” World Health Organization: Geneva. 1996.
[7] Frequently Asked Questions on Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (http://www.unfpa.org/gender/practices2.htm#4).
[8] “The Ritual of Circumcision”, von Karen Ericksen Paige. Human Nature, S. 40-48, May 1978.
[9] ibid.
[10] ibid.
[11] McDonald, C.F., M.D (September, 1958). “Circumcision of the Female.
[12] Ezzell, Carol (October 31, 2000). “Anatomy and Sexual Dysfunction”.
[13] Clitoral Circumcision. Tantra * Kama Sutra * Tantric Sex & Tantric philosophy.
[14] Rathmann, W.G., M.D. (September, 1959). “Female Circumcision: Indications and a New Technique.”

(teil 2 von 2): Beschneidung unter Muslimen

 

Verschiedene Ansichten

Although male circumcision is a matter recommended in Islam, scholars‘ opinions differ when it comes to women. Some scholars viewed it as recommended, others only as permitted. Finally, some have even found their inadmissibility. All of these opinions are based on a number of prophetic statements (hadith) related to this subject.

Islamic scholars, who say circumcision is recommended, do so mainly because of a hadith in which the Prophet said,
„Circumcision is Sunna for men and something honorable for women.“ (Musnad Ahmad)

Based on this tradition, the scholars of Islam understood that the prophet called for circumcision of both men and women as a recommendable religious act based on the well-known principles of Islamic law.
Those who see them as permitted base their opinion on an additional tradition from Umm Atiyyah, in which the Prophet learned of circumcision on a girl. It is reported from the instructions for the woman who performed it:

„Prune but not prune, because it makes the face (of the girl) brighter and is more beneficial with the husband.“ (Mu`jam al-Tabarânî al-Awsat)

From this hadith, scholars take permission to circumcise women because the prophet did not declare them forbidden. They also learn from this that it is not permitted to go to extremes because of its prohibition „not to cut in“.

If one looks at the statements of scholars of the hadith, one finds that quite a number of the most famous, such as Ibn Hajar, al-Bukhari, Abu Dawud, al-Bayhaqi, ibn-ul-Mundthir, ash-Shawkani, found that they are weak and you cannot rely on them. Ibn ul-Mundthir said:

„There is no record of circumcision that can be invoked, and no chain of records that can be traced.“ [1]

It is known among the scholars of Islam, if a hadith is found to be weak and untrustworthy, that it is not allowed to use it as evidence to establish a regulation in Islam, because all legal regulations in religion must be authentic , unequivocal evidence.

„Sunna“ circumcision

It is often heard that Type I FGC is sometimes called “Sunna” circumcision and has a foundation in Islam, however weak it may be. It is important to note that it is only this first type that some scholars have considered to be permitted or recommended; it is cutting the foreskin so that the glans clitoridis is exposed or less than that. This procedure is harmless and has no side effects on women and is comparable to male circumcision as mentioned earlier. Some have even argued that this procedure has beneficial effects, as mentioned earlier, such as increased sexual enjoyment, preventing unpleasant odors resulting from the build-up of foul secretions under the foreskin, and reducing infections in the genitourinary tract and reproductive system. [2]

As far as the other types of FGC are concerned, there is no basis for this in Islam, but they are rather strictly forbidden, which is suggested by the hadith, which allows them but prohibits them from going to extremes. Islamic law also protects the woman’s right to sexual enjoyment, which shows the fact that a woman has the right to divorce if her husband does not provide for her sexual satisfaction. As for those Muslims in certain parts of the world who practice that type of female genital mutilation if they grow in their understanding of Islam, they will also refrain from doing these disgusting acts. A clear example of this is that the various groups in Kenya that do not circumcise women are Muslims while it is a country

However, we must emphasize that the correct point of view is that there is no reliable text that directly encourages any form of female circumcision, and so the matter is left to other general texts that prohibit harm and those that do harm ask everything that is beneficial and beneficial to health. A foundation of Islamic law is that something that has not been specifically prohibited is permitted but is still subject to other indirect texts. This brings a lot of tolerance to religion, but it also allows dealing with new issues that time brings with it. If it is found that circumcision is useful for women or for society, then it would be necessary in Islam because all things that are useful for life are recommended by religion. But if circumcision is found to be harmful, then it will be considered something absolutely forbidden, like Dr. Abd al-Rahmân b. Hasan al-Nafisah, editor of the Contemporary Jurisprudence Research Journal in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, stated in his article entitled Female Circumcision & Islam: “In Islamic law, the protection of the person – life and physical integrity – is a legal requirement. Anything that endangers this legal requirement by harming the person is prohibited. ”[3] Editor of the Contemporary Jurisprudence Research Journal in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in his article entitled Female Circumcision & Islam stated: “In Islamic law, the protection of the person – life and physical integrity – is a legal requirement. Anything that endangers this legal requirement by harming the person is prohibited. ”[3] Editor of the Contemporary Jurisprudence Research Journal in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in his article entitled Female Circumcision & Islam stated: “In Islamic law, the protection of the person – life and physical integrity – is a legal requirement. Anything that endangers this legal requirement by harming the person is prohibited. ”[3]

 

Footnotes:
[1] Talkhees al-Habeer. Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani. Hadeeth # 2140.
[2] Female Circumcision: A Medical Perspective, Sitt al-Banaat Khalid. 2003.
[3] (http://islamtoday.com/showme2.cfm?cat_id=2&sub_cat_id=822).

 


Source: https://www.islamland.com/deu/articles/beschneidung-von-frauen-im-islam