It is amazing how the enemies of Islam will take verses of the Quran so far out of context, even though one can quickly find their answer if they just read a few verses before and after. Allah says in the Quran, “But once the Sacred Months have passed, kill the polytheists ˹who violated their treaties˺ wherever you find them, capture them, besiege them, and lie in wait for them on every way. But if they repent, perform prayers, and pay alms-tax, then set them free. Indeed, Allah is All-Forgiving, Most Merciful” (Quran 9:5). If one just reads from the beginning of the Chapter, it is clear that these verses are referring to a peace treaty made between the Muslims and the polytheists of Mecca. Therefore, after the truce was over and the sacred months, or grace period, had passed, if the polytheists didn’t amend their ways, Allah ordered the Muslims to kill only those who would violate the treaty, not those who upheld it. That’s why literally in the verse before, Allah says, “As for the polytheists who have honored every term of their treaty with you and have not supported an enemy against you, honor your treaty with them until the end of its term. Surely Allah loves those who are mindful ˹of Him˺” (Quran 9:4). Additionally, in the verse after the fifth verse, Allah says, “And if anyone from the polytheists asks for your protection ˹O Prophet˺, grant it to them so they may hear the Word of Allah, then escort them to a place of safety, for they are a people who have no knowledge” (Quran 9:6). Allah ordered the Muslims to protect any polytheist who sought protection and not to attack them. This verse served as a threat, and this is why not a single person was actually killed or executed from this event. Hence, it is clear that these verses are completely taken out of context and are actually referring to a historical event that does not give any Muslims permission to just go and kill disbelievers.
Another verse quoted by the enemies of Islam is the following: “Kill them wherever you find them, and drive them out from where they drove you out, as Fitnah (to create disorder) is more severe than killing” (Quran 2:191). If one literally just reads the verse above this verse, one will better understand the context: “Fight in the cause of Allah ˹only˺ against those who wage war against you, but do not exceed the limits. Allah does not like transgressors” (Quran 2:190). These verses are referring to the time of the Prophet Muhammad PBUH where the disbelievers were oppressing, killing, and persecuting the Muslims. Allah then gave Muslims permission to fight them back and drive them out of the land just as the disbelievers drove them out. Allah only commands the Muslims to fight those who are fighting them, and even then, to not exceed any limits. Again, this verse is clearly referring to a historical event and is not giving any Muslims permission to just go and kill disbelievers.
In conclusion, it is clear that both of these verses that the enemies of Islam try to use against Muslims are talking about a specific place, time, and necessity. Allah does not even allow Muslims to insult disbelievers, nevertheless hurting them. Allah says in the Quran, “Allah does not forbid you from those who do not fight you because of religion and do not expel you from your homes – from being righteous toward them and acting justly toward them. Indeed, Allah loves those who act justly” (Quran 60:8).
And Allah knows best.